[147], The Inuit and Alaska Natives have many folk tales featuring the bears including legends in which bears are humans when inside their own houses and put on bear hides when going outside, and stories of how the constellation that is said to resemble a great bear surrounded by dogs came into being. Like the brown bear, most ungulate prey of polar bears is likely to be young, sickly or injured specimens rather than healthy adults. Para se limparen, usan as patas, a lingua, auga ou neve. [199], Warnings about the future of the polar bear are often contrasted with the fact that worldwide population estimates have increased over the past 50 years and are relatively stable today. They may also eat plants, including berries, roots, and kelp;[107] however, none of these have been a significant part of their diet,[99] except for beachcast marine mammal carcasses. Por mor da súa dependencia do xeo do mar, os osos polares están clasificados como un mamíferos mariños.[7]. By 2080, they could disappear from Greenland entirely and from the northern Canadian coast, leaving only dwindling numbers in the interior Arctic Archipelago. Polar bears continue to be listed as a species of special concern in Canada because of their sensitivity to overharvest and because of an expected range contraction caused by loss of Arctic sea ice. These alternatives may reduce the rate of weight loss of bears when on land. pp. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the polar bear diverged from the brown bear, Ursus arctos, roughly 150,000 years ago. A pelaxe dos osos polares é branca e cobre todo o corpo, inclusive a planta das patas, como illamento do frío. [168], Because of the way polar bear hunting quotas are managed in Canada, attempts to discourage sport hunting would actually increase the number of bears killed in the short term. [12] It is sometimes referred to as the "nanook", based on the Inuit term nanuq.[13]. O oso polar (Ursus maritimus), tamén coñecido como oso branco, é un mamífero da familia dos Úrsidos. Os derramamentos de petróleo tamén afectan os osos polares. É un oso carnívoro cuxo hábitat abrangue unha ampla rexión do Círculo Polar Ártico, no Océano Ártico, e as masas de terra que arrodean os mares. El oso polar es una criatura relativamente nueva, que según sugieren el registro fósil y el genoma analizado, surgió de una población oso pardo aislada en el norte por la glaciación, hace tan sólo 150.000 años. ", "Are polar bear populations increasing: in fact, booming? Máis tarde, debido a interpretacións paleontolóxicas e evolutivas, foi proposta por Kurtén (1964), a integración de Phipps (1774), como a autoridade da especie. [2][37][38], There are 19 generally recognized, discrete subpopulations, though polar bears are thought to exist only in low densities in the area of the Arctic Basin. [179] As of 2015, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) reports that the global population of polar bears is 22,000 to 31,000, and the current population trend is unknown. The bearded seal, on the other hand, can be nearly the same size as the bear itself, averaging 270 kg (600 lb). The Soviet Union banned all hunting in 1956. [31], When the polar bear was originally documented, two subspecies were identified: the American polar bear (Ursus maritimus maritimus) by Constantine J. Phipps in 1774, and the Siberian polar bear (Ursus maritimus marinus) by Peter Simon Pallas in 1776. [133] Several animal species, particularly Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) and glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), routinely scavenge polar bear kills. As seis especies actuais do xénero Ursus orixináronse hai uns 6 millóns de anos. It banned hunting (except by indigenous subsistence hunters), banned importing of polar bear parts (except polar bear pelts taken legally in Canada), and banned the harassment of polar bears. [36][181][182][183][184][185], The key danger posed by climate change is malnutrition or starvation due to habitat loss. [200][201] Some estimates of the global population are around 5,000 to 10,000 in the early 1970s;[202] other estimates were 20,000 to 40,000 during the 1980s. Thalarctos maritimus, O oso polar (Ursus maritimus), tamén coñecido como oso branco, é un mamífero da familia dos Úrsidos. [90], The polar bear's most common hunting method is called still-hunting:[91] the bear uses its excellent sense of smell to locate a seal breathing hole, and crouches nearby in silence for a seal to appear. [132] The causes of death in wild adult polar bears are poorly understood, as carcasses are rarely found in the species's frigid habitat. Algúns animais cativos, expostos a climas quentes e húmidos, desenvolven unha cor verde grazas a algas que crecen nos seus pelos ocos. Esta especie é extremadamente perigosa para o home, que encara como presa, especialmente se non houber abundancia dos seus alimentos habituais. É o meirande oso, cun tamaño semellante ó do omnívoro oso de Kodiak (Ursus arctos middendorffi). Un espécime do zoo de Londres morreu aos 41 anos. Several such sites have been preserved on the Yamal Peninsula. Polar bear scientists call this "the cowboy walk." Phipps foi o primeiro en describir este animal como especie distinta: Thalarctos maritimus (Phipps, 1774). "[155], Agreements have been made between countries to co-manage their shared polar bear subpopulations. To appease the spirit of the bear, traditional song and drum music was played, and the skull was ceremonially fed and offered a pipe. O oso pardo e o oso polar diverxeron dun devanceiro común hai preto de 2 millóns de anos e o cruzamento entre as dúas especies xera descendentes fértiles, feito que pode levar á conclusión de que o oso polar é unha subespecie do oso pardo. [5][6] A boar (adult male) weighs around 350–700 kg (770–1,540 lb),[7] while a sow (adult female) is about half that size. A pesar de non seren sociais, os osos son capaces, con todo, de compartir os restos dunha balea sen maiores conflitos. [3] Un macho adulto rolda entre os 350 e os 700 kg de peso,[4] mentres que a femia adulta pode chegar á metade de peso. Whereas northern communities kill all the polar bears they are permitted to take each year, only half of sport hunters with permits actually manage to kill a polar bear. [195][196] The bears could disappear from Europe, Asia, and Alaska, and be depleted from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and areas off the northern Greenland coast. The length of these swims ranged from most of a day to ten days. O pelo individual é transparente e oco. De todos os osos, o oso polar é o máis restritamente carnívoro. [39] Until 2005 Greenland placed no limit on hunting by indigenous people. [11] For thousands of years, the polar bear has been a key figure in the material, spiritual, and cultural life of circumpolar peoples, and polar bears remain important in their cultures. [26] A comparison of the nuclear genome of polar bears with that of brown bears revealed a different pattern, the two forming genetically distinct clades that diverged approximately 603,000 years ago,[27] although the latest research is based on analysis of the complete genomes (rather than just the mitochondria or partial nuclear genomes) of polar and brown bears, and establishes the divergence of polar and brown bears at 400,000 years ago. Esta especie concéntrase xunto á costa, dado que depende da auga para encontrar as súas presas. Poden xerar até catro fillotes por xestación, aínda que a media sexa de dúas crías. [185] The Western Hudson Bay subpopulation, in a southern part of the range, also happens to be one of the best-studied polar bear subpopulations. [190], Polar bears accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides. Since an attack on a walrus tends to be an extremely protracted and exhausting venture, bears have been known to back down from the attack after making the initial injury to the walrus. [88] The Arctic is home to millions of seals, which become prey when they surface in holes in the ice in order to breathe, or when they haul out on the ice to rest. Michio Hoshino, a Japanese wildlife photographer, was once pursued briefly by a hungry male polar bear in northern Alaska. [81] Polar bears are usually quiet but do communicate with various sounds and vocalizations. [43] Sport hunting can bring CDN$20,000 to $35,000 per bear into northern communities, which until recently has been mostly from American hunters. [194], Oil and gas development in polar bear habitat can affect the bears in a variety of ways. [47] Its preferred habitat is the annual sea ice covering the waters over the continental shelf and the Arctic inter-island archipelagos. Photos, facts, videos from Polar Bears International that funds population, preservation, and DNA studies of the polar bear, Map: Here's where the polar bears are vanishing, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polar_bear&oldid=990856734, Taxa named by Constantine Phipps, 2nd Baron Mulgrave, Articles with dead external links from December 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Canadian English, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from December 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 22:14.
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